45 Peri-Menopause & Menopause Symptoms – Full List

The Complete list of Menopause Symptoms in Women

Menopause is a normal part of life that every woman has to go through. Also referred to as the change or climacteric, menopause marks the end of the menstrual cycle. In fact, menopause occurs when a woman went 12 months without getting her period. The average age of onset of menopause in the United States is 51, but the most common age range is 45 to 59 years old.

Menopause-symptoms-by-age

Although menopause is inevitable, there is still a lot to learn about it. The effects of menopause go beyond night sweats and hot flashes. Menopause induces a number of different symptoms and learning more about them helps you manage their severity and have a pleasant experience. Contrary to all those stories you’ve heard, menopause doesn’t have to be a nightmare.

This post brings you the rundown of all menopause symptoms.
For easy understanding, they are classified into different categories.
Psycological, Congnitive, Sexual, Physical, Vasomotor, Digestive, Oral, Nervous and General Symptoms.

We also added an additional factor, which is How common a symptom is?
So under each symptom we labeled them into four different categories:
Very Common, Common, Rare and Very Rare.

Psychological symptoms

1. Mood swings

Symptom Popularity: Very common

Mood swings are among the most common symptoms of menopause. The term mood swing refers to emotional reaction considered inappropriate to its trigger or cause. Although most of us experience mood swings at one point or another, menopausal women experience them more frequently.

Why do we have mood swings? Like many other symptoms and events in menopause, problems with mood also stem from hormonal imbalances. In some instances, mood swings can occur as a consequence of other symptoms like night sweats.

Even though every woman can experience this menopause symptom, some ladies are at a greater risk[i] and common factors that increase the odds of dealing with mood swings are:

  • A history of severe PMS

  • Prior episodes of mental health problems

  • Unhealthy relationship with loved ones

  • Stress

  • Dysfunctional living situation

2. Depression

Symptom Popularity: Very common

Depression is a common and potentially severe symptom of menopause. Contrary to the popular belief, depression is more than a feeling of sadness. It is associated with a number of physical and psychological symptoms that affect a person’s quality of life.

Depression is more prevalent among women than in men[ii]. What’s more, women from the 45-55 age group are four times more likely to have depression[iii], than ladies who are younger or older. While some studies show that early onset of menopause puts a woman at a higher risk of depression, others find no link between these factors. That being a said, a growing body of evidence confirms that experiencing a long peri-menopausal period, at least 27 months, significantly increases the risk of depression[iv].

The primary cause of depression in menopausal women is, you guessed it, hormonal imbalance. As you approach menopause, estrogen levels start decreasing. This hormone is essential for regulation of brain functions, particular neurotransmitters like serotonin, with major influence on your mood. Other causes of depression can be:

  • Difficulty managing other symptoms of menopause

  • Major changes in life that occur at that time

  • Family history of depression or other mood disorders

  • Environmental factors

  • Being diagnosed with some other health condition

  • Issues in private life

Depression can be divided into several categories. Menopause is usually associated with the following:

  • Adjustment disorder – it can be acute or chronic. Stressful events or situations usually induce adjustment disorder
  • Dysthymic disorder – although it isn’t as intense as major depression, it lasts longer. Dysthymic disorder can last up to two years
  • Major depression – indicated by intense feelings of sadness, social isolation, loss of interest in everyday activities, and negative thoughts. It lasts for more than two weeks
  • Manic depression or bipolar disorder – indicated by unusual shifts in a person’s mood, ability to function, and energy levels. Symptoms of this disorder can be severe
  • Psychotic depression – involves features of psychosis like delusions (irrational fears and thoughts) and hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that don’t exist)
  • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) – triggered by seasons and usually caused by lack of sunlight during cold winter months

Here’s the 3 easiest and simplest ways to fight depression:

  • Spend your time doing what you enjoy doing.
  • Always surround yourself with other people (friends or family)
  • Force yourself to go out: for example
    1. sign up at a local gym,
    2. Get yourself a dog (so you are forced to take it out to walk)
    3. or even do some volunteering work.

The goal here is to keep yourself busy so that you won’t have time to feel lonely or letting those negative thoughts come back.

3. Lack of motivation

Symptom Popularity: Very common

Feeling unmotivated and having very low willpower to do the normal everyday tasks. This problem can be difficult because it usually shows up as a result of multiple factors, such as low energy levels and depression (both of which are signs of menopause). Just follow the same simple steps that are outlined under the Depression part. And make sure you are consuming your daily vitamins to give you back your healthy level of energy.

4. Anxiety

Symptom Popularity: Common

Like other mood disorders, anxiety can affect just about anyone. That being said, women are more prone to anxiety than men. An important study from journal Menopause discovered that women with high anxiety before menopause aren’t at a higher risk of developing anxiety in different stages of menopausal transition. On the other hand, women with low levels of anxiety before menopause were more likely to develop this mood disorder during and after menopausal transition[v].

The main cause of anxiety for menopausal women is an imbalance of estrogen. Since levels of this hormone decline, regulation of moods and disorders is impaired. This happens because estrogen directly affects serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and melatonin, all of which are important chemicals and neurotransmitters.

5. Irritability (Aggression, grumpiness)

Symptom Popularity: Very common

Irritability is defined as an excessive response to stimuli. It is not uncommon for women to be more easily irritated by daily stresses during menopause. Although most ladies understand their irritable mood has a lot to do with the climacteric, they find it difficult to avoid this mood. Unsurprisingly, the primary cause of irritability in menopause is a hormonal imbalance. In addition, other symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes can also contribute to irritability.

6. Feelings of dread

Symptom Popularity: Common

Some women experience feelings of dread, particularly at night for quite some time during menopausal transition. In some cases, dread can be linked to some important change or event you’re facing, but in some instances, women don’t know why they feel that way. Feelings of dread can also stem from insecurities and belief that menopause takes away happiness from your life.

7. Increased Appetite (Food cravings)

Symptom Popularity: Common

Resisting food becomes harder than ever, especially desserts such as Cakes, chocolates and sweets.
Make sure you are excercising to burn off those extra calories, and keep an emergency dark chocolate with you just in case the glucose level in your blood suddenly crashes.

Cognitive symptoms

Menopause is a truly complex time that brings a number of changes in a woman’s body. Besides its effects on psychological wellbeing, menopause also has some cognitive symptoms.

8. Difficulty concentrating

Symptom Popularity: Common

Even though all of us can experience difficulty concentrating from time to time, in menopausal women this problem is amplified. Difficulty concentrating refers to the inability to focus on everyday tasks or important projects and other processes. This symptom is usually coupled with disorientation and loss of train of thoughts.

The underlying cause of this symptom is the fact that declining estrogen affects the production of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine, all of which are essential for cognitive functioning. Along with hormonal imbalance, women can experience problems with concentration due to lack of sleep, depression, anxiety, and other symptoms of menopause.

9. Memory lapses

Symptom Popularity:  Rare

Memory lapses are, basically, periods when an affected person loses the mental capacity of recalling or retaining information. In most cases, memory lapses in menopausal women affect short-term and recent memory.

Short-term memory refers to the ability to remember information at brief moments like remembering a phone number for the time it takes to dial and call someone. Recent memory is the ability to recall everyday events that are involved in learning new information.

These problems with memory are usually called brain fog and it was widely believed to be a myth. However, scientists at the University of Rochester Medical Center and the University of Illinois at Chicago confirmed that brain fog is real[vi] and women do experience memory problems in menopause.

The fact that many women experience memory lapses in menopause points out to a possible connection with hormonal changes[vii]. After all, estrogen is important for language skills, attention, mood, memory, and other cognitive functions. In addition, problems with memory can also be down to other symptoms that affect a woman’s concentration level and retention of information.

Sexual symptoms

Menopause brings major changes to your sex life with symptoms such as vaginal dryness and loss of libido. Bear in mind, this doesn’t mean the end of your sex life. There are many ways to boost your libido and tackle vaginal dryness.

10. Loss of libido

Symptom Popularity: Common

Evidence shows that women experience a significant decrease in sexual desire during the menopausal transition[viii]. Loss of libido is one of the most difficult symptoms to manage primarily because a woman may not know what is going on or reason why she lost her sexual desire in the first place.

Weak libido has a negative impact on a woman’s sex life and the relationship or marriage if she avoids having a conversation with the significant other about this issue. Hormonal imbalance is the primary cause of low sex drive. Declining levels of estrogen, progesterone, and even testosterone can negatively affect a woman’s desire for sexual intercourse.

Other causes of loss of libido in menopausal women include:

  • Vaginal dryness

  • Chronic disease

  • Medication use

  • Stress

  • Negative body image

  • Problems in relationship

  • Major life changes

  • Lack of communication between partners

11. Vaginal dryness

Symptom Popularity: Very Common

Atrophic vaginitis or vaginal dryness is self-explanatory, the symptoms refer to the lack of moisture in the vaginal area. As a woman approaches menopause, the body undergoes major hormonal changes and female hormones (estrogen and progesterone) start to decline. Before menopause takes place, estrogen keeps vaginal wall moist and supple by ensuring there is enough mucous lining is covering these walls.

When levels of estrogen drop, this lubrication starts decreasing too, thus making vagina walls sensitive and thin. Along with hormonal, there are numerous emotional, psychological, physiological, and emotional factors play a role in decreasing libido.

Vaginal dryness can also be indicated by the following symptoms:

  • Pressure in vaginal area

  • Itching

  • Discomfort when wearing pants

  • Light bleeding during intercourse

  • Frequent urination

  • Irritation

  • Burning

  • Stinging

12. Painful sex

Symptom Popularity: Very Common

When the vaginal tissue becomes thinner & drier, it leads to a painful sex; as a result it can contribute further to the loss of libido. It’s a compound effect.

13. Candidiasis (vaginal yeast infection)

Symptom Popularity: Very Rare

This is not a common symptom, but it can “increase the risk” of getting candidiasis, so if a woman already has it, it may become worse during menopause.

Physical symptoms

Now that we have discussed sexual, cognitive, and psychological symptoms of menopause, it is time to learn more about physical signs and symptoms.

14. Fatigue

Symptom Popularity: Very Common

Women in menopause frequently experience crashing fatigue, defined as a sudden and overwhelming feeling of exhaustion, reduced energy, and weakness. Fatigue can occur at any time of the day.

Bear in mind that menopause-related fatigue isn’t the same thing as chronic fatigue syndrome. The latter involves periods of extreme fatigue that do not improve with bed rest. The primary cause of fatigue in menopause is a hormonal imbalance[ix]. In addition, lack of sleep can also contribute to exhaustion and weakness.

The same hormones that cause hot flashes, night sweats and other symptoms also have an impact on your energy levels. As a result, it may be more difficult for you to get enough sleep, thus making you feel tired during the day.

15. Weight gain

Symptom Popularity: Common

One of the most frustrating symptoms of menopause is weight gain. Studies show that hormonal changes across Peri-menopause significantly contribute to enhanced abdominal obesity, thus leading to additional physical and psychological morbidity[x].

Some estimates show that about 90% of menopausal women experience weight gain to some extent. Of course, the amount of gained weight varies from one woman to another. On average, women gain between 12 and 15 pounds between the ages 45 and 55.

Besides hormonal changes, women can also gain weight due to stress, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, excessive use of alcohol, among others. Keeping weight in a healthy range is possible through lifestyle changes.

16. Water retention/swelling

Symptom Popularity: Rare

One of the side effects as a result of hormonal alteration during the peri-menopausal transition is increased water retention (swelling) in different parts of the body, and causes soreness as a result.

The most common places of swelling are breast, ankles and waist.

17. Headaches

Symptom Popularity: Rare

Headaches during menopause are a common occurrence and their intensity can vary among women. In some cases, women experience migraine pain which generally comes on slowly on one side of the head and starts building, pulsating, and throbbing until it becomes so severe to make exposure to light or noise too painful to bear. One study showed that migraines may worsen as a woman is approaching menopause[xi].

The main cause of headaches is hormonal imbalance, but the underlying mechanism is still inconclusive. Some scientists theorize that relationship between a headache and hormones is down to the effects of hormones like estrogen and progesterone on brain and blood vessels. Other causes of headaches during menopause include:

  • Stress

  • Excessive amount of alcohol

  • Lack of sleep

18. Hair Loss And Thinning Hair

Symptom Popularity: Common

During menopause, certain hormonal changes are sure to occur in the female body. In particular, estrogen production is considerably reduced, and the body also does not produce as much progesterone as before menopause as well. At the same time, the woman’s body may start to produce more androgens during menopause. As a result, this may lead to shrinking hair follicles, which can cause hair loss. Thinning hair, however, is much more common amongst women than hair loss, as reported by Healthline12.

19. Facial Hair Growth

Symptom Popularity: Very Rare

Hair can start growing in unusual places.
Some women experience facial hair growth on their upper lips, chin and cheeks. This is usually directly caused by the changes in the hormones in the body, but sometimes they can be caused by chemical medications like HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy).
There is also a chance that hair may grow around nipples and again they are caused by the same reason.

20. Hair Growth around nipples

Symptom Popularity: Very Rare

There is also a chance that hair may grow around nipples and again they are caused by the same reason as in the previous symptom.

21. Brittle Nails

Symptom Popularity: Common

Eileen Durward, an expert on the topic of menopause, explains at A.Vogel13 that the fact that menopause causes a fluctuation of oestrogen levels in the female body often contributes toward dehydration. This is because oestrogen is a vital hormone that contributes to the regulation of water levels. Dehydration can then lead to nails that become brittle, a condition that is medically referred to as onychorrhexis.

22. Acne

Symptom Popularity: Very Rare

While most people think Acne ends during the teenage years, it can make a come back during the menopause years. According to a study done by the American Academy of Dermatology, acne can be spotted on the chin and throat area, and that’s it’s a common symptom for women in menopause.

23. Itchy, Crawly Skin

Symptom Popularity: Rare

During menopause and especially after a woman has gone through this particular transition, itchy skin, as well as a condition known as paresthesia, which causes a “crawling” sensation on the skin, may develop. Estrogen is essential for maintaining healthy skin and to maintain an adequate level of moisture in the skin. As estrogen levels deplete during menopause, the skin tends to become dry; thus leading to dry skin. In some cases, a woman may also develop paresthesia and experience a sensation that feels like insects are crawling on them.

24. Itchy Eyes

Symptom Popularity: Rare

The eyes also can suffer from dryness which can causes itchiness and blurry vision. It’s highly recommended that you make an eye check up once or twice a year. Using best practices to keep your eyes healthy is also a must:

  • Roll your eyes.
  • Use adequate lighting.
  • Giving your eyes short breaks from activities that needs focus, such as reading or sewing.
  • Walking outside more often to look at far distances.
  • Don’t stare on your phone or computer for too long (especially harmful in a dark room)

25. Dark spots under eyes

Symptom Popularity: Rare

Dark spots usually appear as a result of sleep disorder (insomnia) which is also one of the signs of menopause.

26. Aching Joints

Symptom Popularity: Rare

The fact that menopause causes bones to become more brittle than before can not only lead to an increased risk of osteoporosis, but also have a significant effect on joints. This may lead to the development of joint pain in various area of the body.

27. Muscle Problems (cramps and Saggy)

Symptom Popularity: Common

Menopause Health Matters18 explain that muscles also contains estrogen receptors, and when estrogen production declines, the muscles could become weaker and painful.

28.Osteoporosios (Loss of Bone density)

The risk of developing osteoporosis increases significantly for a woman after she has gone through menopause. This is because estrogen production is stopped during menopause, and this particular hormone plays a vital role in maintaining strong and healthy bones. Thus, with the absence of the hormone in the female body, bones are more likely to become brittle, damage and become fractured.

Vasomotor symptoms

29. Hot flashes

Symptom Popularity: Very Common

Hot flashes belong to the group of vasomotor symptoms of menopause. They have the potential to disrupt the healthy regulation of blood vessels. This leads to experiencing intense heat, perspiration, and other symptoms that range from mild to severe.

Disrupted levels of estrogen are the main reason behind hot flashes. For example, estrogen directly affects the hypothalamus, an area of the brain that plays a role in body temperature, sleep, and appetite.

Reduced estrogen levels can confuse the hypothalamus, thus making it incorrectly assume the body is overheating. Other causes of hot flashes include certain medications, panic disorder, diabetes, obesity, cancer, among many others.

30. Night sweats

Symptom Popularity: Very Common

Sleep hyperhidrosis or night sweats is a common, disruptive, and uncomfortable symptom of menopause. Although a vast majority of women between 40s and 50s experience night sweats, their symptoms have different severity. Night sweats have the tremendous potential to affect a woman’s sleep pattern. This could explain why women are sleep deprived in menopause.

Night sweats are indicated by sudden and intense heat, nausea, flushing, irregular heartbeat, chills, and headaches. Some factors can increase severity and duration of night sweats. These triggers include stress, anxiety, alcohol, diet pills, just to name a few.

31. Changes in body odor

Symptom Popularity: Rare

The smell of the body may become an embarrassing especially during summer times when sweating increases; having daily showers is recommended. [20]

Digestive symptoms

32. Bloating

Symptom Popularity: Common

During menopause, the hormonal imbalance created in the female body can lead to certain problems in the abdominal region as well. This may include the feeling of bloating, which is caused by an increase in water retention, as well as a high concentration of intestinal gas being produced.

33. Digestive Problems

Symptom Popularity: Common

Problems with the digestive system is not only common amongst women going through menopause, but even those in the peri-menopause phase. Digestive problems in menopausal women are caused by the imbalance of hormones, which results in an excess production of cortisol, a stress hormone that leads to anxiety symptoms and also affects the digestive system.

34. Irregular constipation or diarrhea over long periods of time

Oral symptoms

35. Burning Tongue And

Symptom Popularity: Rare

A relatively rare symptom that women may experience when they are menopausal is a burning tongue, medically known as burning tongue syndrome or burning mouth syndrome. This may cause certain parts of the woman’s tongue, as well as additional areas in the mouth, to experience a burning or numb sensation. The cause, however, is currently not known, as reported19 by the HP Govt. Dental College in India.

36. Gum & Teeth problems

Symptom Popularity: Rare

The fluctuation in different hormone levels can also lead to a higher risk of developing gum disease, bleeding gum or the loss of bone in the jaw and teeth.

Nervous system symptoms

37. Electric Shock Sensation And Tingling Extremities

Symptom Popularity: Very Rare

As we have previously discussed, paresthesia may cause a crawling sensation on the skin, but this is not always the case. Some people do tend to experience a tingling sensation instead. In addition to tingling feelings in the extremities, such as the hands and feet, some women also experience numbness and pain, as well as a pins and needles sensation. This is caused by the effect that the hormone fluctuations have on the nervous system. Additionally, an electric shock sensation may also be experienced due to the way hormone imbalances affect the nervous system. This occurs when a disruption occurs that impacts the electrical impulses that are sent through the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

38. Irregular Heartbeats

Symptom Popularity: Very Rare

Many women find that they experience irregular heartbeats – either frequently or infrequently – when they are going through menopause. Once again, the fluctuations in hormone production is to blame for this particular symptom. According to the Menopause Center in Australia16, reduced estrogen production cause the sympathetic autonomic nervous system to become overstimulated; thus causing the heartbeat to become irregular and often also resulting in heart palpitations.

General Symptoms

39. Dizziness

Symptom Popularity: Rare

The hormonal changes that a woman experiences during menopause can also lead to dizziness. In addition to the hormonal changes, certain symptoms that are directly associated with menopause, such as hot flushes, anxiety and migraines, can also cause dizziness.

40. Increase In Allergies (and amplifies existing allergies)

Symptom Popularity: Rare

Women going through menopause often experiences more allergies than previously. There are two ways menopause is connected to allergies. Firstly, according to a study14 reported by the University of Mumbai in India, some women experience an allergic reaction when their body treats the change in hormone levels within their own body as allergens. Carolina Hormone & Health Center15 also reports that the fluctuation of estrogen levels may affect histamine production and, in turn, cause a woman who is going through menopause to experience more severe allergic reactions to allergens in her living environment.

41. Breast Pain

Symptom Popularity: Common

Breast pain is another symptom that is not uncommon amongst menopausal women. This particular symptom is caused by the fluctuations that occur in progesterone and estrogen production, which may affect the tissue found in the woman’s breasts. This symptoms usually continues to occur until the woman’s body stops producing estrogen.

42. Incontinence (Urinary Urgency)

Symptom Popularity: Very Common

Urinary incontinence is defined as the inability to control the bladder. The severity of this problem varies from one woman to another. While some women experience occasional trickles when laughing or sneezing, others have a large amount of urine and more frequent uncontrolled urine flow.

There are three types of incontinence:

  • Stress incontinence – the most common type. Women with this type of incontinence usually involuntarily leak urine while laughing, coughing, exercising, and other similar occasions
  • Urge incontinence – intense, sudden, and frequent urge to urinate followed by uncontrollable loss of urine
  • Overflow incontinence – constant or frequent dribbling urine. Women with overflow incontinence are unable to completely empty the bladder. As a result, bladder fills up, starts overflowing, and causes leakage

Hormone deficiency characteristic for menopause is the main reason behind incontinence. Why? That’s because estrogen helps keeping a woman’s muscles strong, even those that maintain bladder control. Other causes of incontinence include infections, weight gain, depression, medications like diuretics

43. Sleep disorders

Symptom Popularity: Common

Our body needs between seven and nine hours of sleep a night in order to stay healthy. Sleep deprivation leads to lack of concentration, irritability, weak immune system, and other negative changes.

The decrease in estrogen and progesterone can cause sleep disorders, but each hormone contributes to this symptom differently. The decline of estrogen slows down the intake of magnesium, a mineral that helps muscles relax. On the other hand, progesterone has sleep-inducing effects. This means that lower levels of progesterone affect the body’s ability to fall asleep as well as before.

Other potential causes of sleep problems in menopause are night sweats, anxiety, depression, problems at work or in personal life. Most common sleep disorders in menopausal women are:

  • Snoring

  • Sleep apnea

  • Insomnia

  • Narcolepsy

  • Restless leg syndrome

44. Irregular Periods

Symptom Popularity: Very Common

Changes in a woman’s periods are one of the most common symptoms that signal the oncoming of menopause. It is also usually one of the first symptoms to develop. According to My Second Spring17, when a woman fails to experience a period for at least 12 months, she has transitioned into the menopausal stage of her life.

45. Menstrual Flood

Symptom Popularity: Common

A significant increase in menstrual flow, where a woman experiences “flooding” of menstrual blood for days, and it usually happens with uterine fibroids during the Peri-menopause phase.

Conclusion

Menopause is an inevitable transition in every woman’s life and it brings a wide array of symptoms whose severity depends from one woman to another. Luckily, it is entirely possible to manage these symptoms and make menopause a tolerable and pleasant experience.

References

[i] Mood swings during menopause: causes and treatments, Medical News Today http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317566.php

[ii] Albert PR. Why is depression more prevalent in women? Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience : JPN. 2015;40(4):219-221. doi:10.1503/jpn.150205. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4478054/

[iii] Depression, MenopauseCentre.com.au https://www.menopausecentre.com.au/information-centre/symptoms/depression/

[iv] Avis NE, Brambilla D, McKinlay SM, et al. A longitudinal analysis of the association between menopause and depression. Results from the Massachusetts women’s health study. Annals of Epidemiology May 1994, vol. 4 no. 3, 214-220. Doi: 10.1016/1047-2797(94)90099-X http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/104727979490099X

[v] Bromberger JT, Kravitz HM, Chang Y, et al. Does Risk for Anxiety Increase During the Menopausal Transition? Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Menopause (New York, NY). 2013;20(5):488-495. doi:10.1097/GME.0b013e3182730599. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3641149/

[vi] “Brain fog” of menopause confirmed, University of Rochester Medical Center https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/news/story/3436/brain-fog-of-menopause-confirmed.aspx

[vii] Henderson VW. Cognitive Changes After Menopause: Influence of Estrogen. Clinical obstetrics and gynecology. 2008;51(3):618-626. doi:10.1097/GRF.0b013e318180ba10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2637911/

[viii] Woods NF, Mitchell ES, Smith-Di Julio K. Sexual Desire During the Menopausal Transition and Early Postmenopause: Observations from the Seattle Midlife Women’s Health Study. Journal of Women’s Health. 2010;19(2):209-218. doi:10.1089/jwh.2009.1388. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2834444/

[ix] 5 ways to beat menopause fatigue, Healthline.com http://www.healthline.com/health/menopause/menopause-fatigue#overview1

[x] Davis SR, Castelo-Branco C, Chedraui P, et al. Understanding weight gain at menopause. Climacteric 2012 Oct;15(5):419-29. Doi: 10.3109/13697137.2012.707385 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22978257

[xi] Martin VT, Pavlovic J, Fanning KM, et al. Perimenopause and menopause are associated with high frequency headache in women with migraine: results of the American Migraine Prevalence, and Prevention study. Headache February 2016, vol. 56 no. 2, 292-305. Doi: 10.1111/head.12763 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/head.12763/abstract;jsessionid=0CE141D1D488A4688748B89A1D6C0C9F.f03t02

12 Lisa Cappelloni. Menopause Hair Loss Prevention. Healthline 2016 Jan; 19. http://www.healthline.com/health/menopause/hair-loss

13 Eileen Durward. Brittle nails and the menopause. A.Vogel. https://www.avogel.co.uk/health/menopause/symptoms/brittle-nails/

14 Shilpa Shah. Hormonal Link to Autoimune Allergies. US National Library of Medicine 2012 Aug; 22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3658477/

15 Are you experiencing an increase in allergies? It may be menopause related. Carolina Hormone & Health Center 2015 Feb; 24. http://www.carolinahormoneandhealth.com/articles/are-you-experiencing-an-increase-in-allergies-it-may-be-menopause-related

16 Heart Palpitations. Menopause Centre Australia. https://www.menopausecentre.com.au/information-centre/symptoms/heart-palpitations/

17 Periods and Menopause. My Second Spring. https://mysecondspring.ie/menopause-symptoms/menopause-and-periods

18 Menopause Muscle Pain and Tension. Menopause Health Matters. http://menopausehealthmatters.com/symptoms-of-menopause/menopause-muscle-pain/

19 Multiple authors. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause. International Journal of Preventive Medicine 2013 Jan; 4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3570906/

20 List of symptoms 2013 Jan; 4. https://patient.info/forums/discuss/66-peri-menopause-menopause-symptoms-you-may-experience-which-may-help-some-ladies-271903

21 Heavy menstrual flood https://www.theperimenopauseblog.com/35-symptoms-of-perimenopause-heavy-flooding-periods-2/

22 On Demand Healthy General information Menopause symptoms, causes and treatments Infographic

23 On Demand Healthy http://www.ondemandhealthy.com/menopause-symptoms

 

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