Non-identical Monozygotic Twins


Non-identical Monozygotic Twins

For more information on this hypothesis, click here.

“For information concerning whether a given set of twins is identical or fraternal, click here.”

Literature Cited

Benirschke, K. 1961. Twin placenta in perinatal mortality. N.Y. State Med. J. 61: 1499-1508.

Bieber, F. R., Nance, M. M., Morton, C. C., Brown, J. A., Redwine, F. O., Jordan, R. L., and Mohanakumar, T. 1981. Genetic studies of an acardiac monster: evidence for polar body twinning in man. Science 213: 775-777.

Bocklage, C. E. 1990. Survival probability of human conceptions from fertilization to term. Internat. J. Fertil. 35: 75-94.

Donnenfeld, A. E. , Glazerman, L. R., Cutillo, D. M., Librizzi, R. J., and Weiner, S.1989. Fetal exsanguination following intrauterine angiographic assessment and selective termination of a hydrocephalic monozygous co-twin. Prenat. Diagn. 9: 301-308.

Edwards, J. H., Dent, K., and Kahn,J. 1966. Monozygotic twins of different sex. J. Med. Genet. 3: 117-123.

Galton, F. 1875. The history of twins, as a criterion of the relative powers of nature and nurture. J. Anthropol. Inst. 12: 566-576.

Goodship, J., Carter, J., and Burn, J. 1996. X-inactivation patterns in monozygotic and dizygotic female twins. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 61: 205-208.

Jorgensen, A. L., Philip, J., Raskind, W. H., Matsushita, M., Christensen, B., Dreyer, V., and Motulsky, A.G. 1992. Different pattern of X-inactivation in MZ twins discordant for red-green color-vision deficiency. Amer. J. Human Genet. 51: 291-298.

Hall, J. 1996. Twins and twinning. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 61: 202-204.

Leonard, N. J., and several others. 1996. Two pairs of male monozygotic twins discordant for Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 61: 253-257.

Machin, G. A. 1996. Some causes of genotypic and phenotypic discordance in monozygotic twin pairs. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 61: 216-228.

Norman, A. and Harper, P. 1989. Survey of manifesting carriers of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy in Wales. Clin. Genet. 36: 31-37.

Ohlsson, R. and several others. 1993. IGF2 is parentally imprinted during human embryogenesis and in the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Nature Genet. 4: 94-97.

Opitz, J. 1993. Blastogenesis and the “primary field” in development. In Blastogenesis : Normal and Abnormal (J. M. Opitz, ed). Birth Defects 29: 3-37.

Pena, S.D. J., Karpati, G., Carpenter, S., and Fraser, F. C. 1987. The clinical consequences of X-chromosome inactivation: Duchenne muscular dystrophy in one of monozygotic twins. J. Neurol. Sci. 79: 337-344.

Rainer, S., Johnson, L. A., Dobry, C. J., Ping, A. J., Grundy, P. J., and Feinberg, A. P. 1993. Relaxation of imprinted genes in human cancer. Nature 362: 747-749.

Richards, C. S. and several others. 1990. Skewed X-inactivation in a female MZ twin results in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Amer. J. Human Genet. 46: 672-681.

Tremblay, J. P. and several others. 1993. Myoblast transplantation between monozygous twin girl carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neuromusc. Disord. 3: 583-592.

Winchester, B. and several others. 1992. Female twin with Hunter disease due to non-random inactivation of the X-chromosome: a consequence of twinning. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 44: 834-838.

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